Face Masks and Face Shields

I always feel that face shields provide much better protection for everyone under the context of a universal masking.

If everyone wears a face shield or a face mask, face shields could possibly be very effective against transmission of the virus.

I agree that for most effective protection, the top of the face shields should not have gaps, unlike the ones our government has designed.

Face Masks and Face Shields

The supply chain for medical masks is concentrated in China and the origin of the outbreak there resulted in factory closures and critical shortages.

To preserve medical masks for health care facilities, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has recommended that all persons wear a cloth mask in public for source control. Cloth masks have been shown to be less effective than medical masks for prevention of communicable respiratory illnesses,8 although in vitro testing suggests that cloth masks provide some filtration of virus-sized aerosol particles.9 Face shields may provide a better option.

Face shields come in various forms, but all provide a clear plastic barrier that covers the face. For optimal protection, the shield should extend below the chin anteriorly, to the ears laterally, and there should be no exposed gap between the forehead and the shield’s headpiece.

Face shields require no special materials for fabrication and production lines can be repurposed fairly rapidly. Numerous companies, including Apple, Nike, GM, and John Deere, have all started producing face shields.

These shields can be made from materials found in craft or office supply stores. Thus, availability of face shields is currently greater than that of medical masks.

Face shields offer a number of advantages. While medical masks have limited durability and little potential for reprocessing, face shields can be reused indefinitely and are easily cleaned with soap and water, or common household disinfectants.

They are comfortable to wear, protect the portals of viral entry, and reduce the potential for autoinoculation by preventing the wearer from touching their face. People wearing medical masks often have to remove them to communicate with others around them; this is not necessary with face shields.

The use of a face shield is also a reminder to maintain social distancing, but allows visibility of facial expressions and lip movements for speech perception.

Most important, face shields appear to significantly reduce the amount of inhalation exposure to influenza virus, another droplet-spread respiratory virus.

In a simulation study, face shields were shown to reduce immediate viral exposure by 96% when worn by a simulated health care worker within 18 inches of a cough.10 Even after 30 minutes, the protective effect exceeded 80% and face shields blocked 68% of small particle aerosols,10 which are not thought to be a dominant mode of transmission of SARS-CoV-2. When the study was repeated at the currently recommended physical distancing distance of 6 feet, face shields reduced inhaled virus by 92%,10 similar to distancing alone, which reinforces the importance of physical distancing in preventing viral respiratory infections. Of note, no studies have evaluated the effects or potential benefits of face shields on source control, ie, containing a sneeze or cough, when worn by asymptomatic or symptomatic infected persons.

However, with efficacy ranges of 68% to 96% for a single face shield, it is likely that adding source control would only improve efficacy, and studies should be completed quickly to evaluate this.

Major policy recommendations should be evaluated using clinical studies. However, it is unlikely that a randomized trial of face shields could be completed in time to verify efficacy. No clinical trial has been conducted to assess the efficacy of widespread testing and contact tracing, but that approach is based on years of experience.

Taken as a bundle, the effectiveness of adding face shields as a community intervention to the currently proposed containment strategies should be evaluated using existing mathematical models.

The implicit goal of face shields alone or in combination with other interventions should be to interrupt transmission by reducing the R0 to less than 1. Notably, effective control of even the most infectious pathogens, such as measles, does not require a vaccine with 100% efficacy.

No burden of 100% efficacy should be placed on face shields or any containment policy because this level of control is both impossible to achieve and unnecessary to drive SARS-CoV-2 infection levels into a manageable range.

Conclusions

The COVID-19 pandemic arrived swiftly and found many countries unprepared. Even highly prepared countries are now facing second-wave outbreaks that have forced implementation of extreme social distancing measures.

To minimize the medical and economic consequences, it is important to rapidly assess and adopt a containment intervention bundle that drives transmissibility to manageable levels.

Face shields, which can be quickly and affordably produced and distributed, should be included as part of strategies to safely and significantly reduce transmission in the community setting. Now is the time for adoption of this practical intervention.

 

Goh Meng Seng

 

 

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12 Responses to “Face Masks and Face Shields”

  • WakeupSG:

    “According to the MOH’s advisory, people in Singapore who need to head out of their homes during this period can wear any of the following types of masks that offer adequate basic protection:

    -Reusable masks
    -DIY masks
    -Plastic face shields

    However, plastic spit guards that only cover the mouth are not allowed.”

    MASKS ONLY COVER THE MOUTH & NOSE!

    FACE SHIELDS PROVIDE OVERALL COVER INCLUDE THE EYES WHICH THE CORONAVIRUS CAN ENTER TO INFECT A PERSON!

    IT’S NOT GOOD ADVICE TO SAY “any mask will be better than no masks.”

    IT’S BEST TO WEAR FACE SHIELDS FOR HIGHER DEGREE OF PROTECTION!

    GD Star Rating
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  • limpei:

    4G ministers need to wear both mask and shield to cover up their faces of shame.

    GD Star Rating
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  • Top Money for Top Talents:

    Dear Singaporeans,
    Goh Meng Seng is a man with no principle. He is like grass on the top of a wall which sways/go with the direction of the wind. 墙头草 , 随风倒属 。

    First he proclaim proudly he join stupid Hong Kong Pro-democracy peaceful protest.

    When things are peaceful and well, he proudly claim he join them.
    When things turn ugly and in turmoil, he stay away from them.

    Goh Meng Seng (GMS) is like Hong Kong lawyer Martin Lee.

    When things turn ugly and in turmoil, GMS and Martin Lee ran away and enjoy fine dining in a place far far away from turmoil.

    We PAP speak with facts. Watch video below.
    Martin Lee Enjoys Dinner During Riot 13 October 2019
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JXjSv3Hj-Xg

    GE2020.PAP.Guarantee.Win.All
    Majullah $PAP$ $PAP$ Huat$ Huat$ Huat$
    Singaporeans must be Cheaper, Better, Faster.
    Workers must accept wage sacrifices to keep businesses going.

    GD Star Rating
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  • Taiwan Pride : Poke Ass Policy:

    Dear Singaporeans,
    If you vote in opposition, Opposition will form weak government that can easily manipulated by LGBT to legalize Poke Ass Policy.

    Facts 1: https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=450158922272464
    Facts 2: https://formosapride.com/

    Taiwan DPP government is so proud of legalize Poke Ass Policy in public that even DPP MPs celebrate with them.

    The DPP MP said: Human right means able to poke backside freely and publicly.

    Dear Singaporeans, if you vote in opposition, opposition will legalize backside poking. Do you want that for your children ?

    GE2020.PAP.Guarantee.Win.All
    Majullah $PAP$ $PAP$ Huat$ Huat$ Huat$
    Singaporeans must be Cheaper, Better, Faster.
    Workers must accept wage sacrifices to keep businesses going.

    GD Star Rating
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  • New:

    @GMS. During this CB period, you took a crash course in virus & masks from skillfuture ….. with skill credit? No advanced diploma or postgraduate in political science? May i recommend theology, or monkhood ?

    GD Star Rating
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  • Use A Cucumber:

    Go shove a cucumber in you r mouth and shut up. Most cities are full of LGBTs.

    Ohyou should use carefree panty shields as face mask. You Idiot supreme.

    Taiwan Pride : Poke Ass Policy:
    Dear Singaporeans,
    If you vote in opposition, Opposition will form weak government that can easily manipulated by LGBT to legalize Poke Ass Policy.

    Facts 1: https://www.facebook.com/watch/?v=450158922272464
    Facts 2: https://formosapride.com/

    Taiwan DPP government is so proud of legalize Poke Ass Policy in public that even DPP MPs celebrate with them.

    The DPP MP said: Human right means able to poke backside freely and publicly.

    Dear Singaporeans, if you vote in opposition, opposition will legalize backside poking. Do you want that for your children ?

    GE2020.PAP.Guarantee.Win.All
    Majullah $PAP$ $PAP$ Huat$ Huat$ Huat$
    Singaporeans must be Cheaper, Better, Faster.
    Workers must accept wage sacrifices to keep businesses going.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Asd:

    I think it’s irresponsible enough to advisory people no need to wear mask when it’s a case of no stock just tell people the truth people will buy their own or innovate then it’s worst because issuse a black mask that people cannot breath in dam lame man

    GD Star Rating
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  • Do more study:

    Need to do more study to find out what will work best to prevent the virus spread for various groups and make available the PPE required easily available .Be it surgical mask or shield etc
    Better still produce enough of those PPE required in Singapore.

    GD Star Rating
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  • john Lim:

    But a face shield is open at the bottom. Isn’t this an entry point for the virus?
    Besides, it will be much more expensive to produce compared to face masks.

    GD Star Rating
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  • made in china good meh?:

    china dumped 600k masks into sg as a gift.
    did u read that uk, belgium n a few other nations bought mils of masks from china but found them to be faulty or fake masks.
    the mils of masks were returned to china.
    will china ever admit?
    so be aware when u go collect that new free ‘improved’ mask from sgov.
    it could be those rejects.

    GD Star Rating
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  • Siah Suaying:

    Oh, it is so easy to con the gullible; the sheeple 70%.
    Notice the Siah Suay Con-man have not given a public apology; despite the audio leak.
    PM material, indeed.
    We think 2steps ahead.
    We built bomb shelters in HDB flats.
    We spend billions on F35 jets.
    But…Oooops, we forgot to stock up masks for citizens even though we have ‘learnt’ the lessons from SARS and are fully prepared.
    BTW ‘Siah Suay’ is the Oxford English Dictionary ‘word of the year, 2020′
    Just beat out ‘COVID’

    Asd:
    I think it’s irresponsible enough to advisory people no need to wear mask when it’s a case of no stock just tell people the truth people will buy their own or innovate then it’s worst because issuse a black mask that people cannot breath in dam lame man

    GD Star Rating
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  • WakeupSG:

    https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/east-asia/eyes-are-important-route-for-coronavirus-to-infect-humans-study

    HONG KONG – The eyes are a key route by which the novel coronavirus infects humans, a study by the University of Hong Kong has found, in addition to the upper respiratory tract, which includes the nose, mouth and throat.

    The study made public on Friday (May 8) also found that Sars-Cov-2 – the strain of coronavirus that causes the Covid-19 disease – was up to 100 times more infectious than the severe acute respiratory syndrome (Sars) virus, or Sars-Cov, and bird flu viruses such as H5N1, reported newswire agency Xinhua.

    WakeupSG:
    “According to the MOH’s advisory, people in Singapore who need to head out of their homes during this period can wear any of the following types of masks that offer adequate basic protection:

    -Reusable masks
    -DIY masks
    -Plastic face shields

    However, plastic spit guards that only cover the mouth are not allowed.”

    MASKS ONLY COVER THE MOUTH & NOSE!

    FACE SHIELDS PROVIDE OVERALL COVER INCLUDE THE EYES WHICH THE CORONAVIRUS CAN ENTER TO INFECT A PERSON!

    IT’S NOT GOOD ADVICE TO SAY “any mask will be better than no masks.”

    IT’S BEST TO WEAR FACE SHIELDS FOR HIGHER DEGREE OF PROTECTION!

    GD Star Rating
    loading...

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