include("cmp.php");

Lee Dynasty Squabble Shakes Singapore Politics

Ho Ching vs Lee Hsien Yang

The bitter feud between Singapore Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong and his siblings, which broke out not long after the 2015 death of the patriarch Lee Kuan Yew, appears about to escalate into the political arena, with Lee Hsien Yang, the premier’s estranged younger brother, thinking of running for the island republic’s presidency when the term of the current president, Halimah Yacob, ends next year – amid rumors that the prime minister’s own wife could run for the same office, and that he is pushing his son to enter politics with an ambition to eventually follow him into the premiership.

The presidential election is scheduled for the third quarter of 2023. One hedge fund manager told Asia Sentinel the next three years could potentially be unstable because the 71-year-old Hsien Loong and his wife Ho Ching (pictured, above) will likely try to push their son Li Hongyi to be a future prime minister, with possible pushback from inside the ruling People’s Action Party (PAP), which is filled with people who would like to move up. The hedge fund manager said he has moved a substantial portion of his assets out of Singapore out of concern.

That may be an abundance of caution. The family squabble has thus taken on such serious dimensions that it has the potential to threaten the even running of the technocrat-dominated Singapore government, arguably the most efficient in Southeast Asia, at a time when increasing numbers of multinationals are relocating to the island to escape the Covid-19 restrictions and National Security-spawned constraints on freedom of speech in Hong Kong.

Although the Singapore presidency is largely ceremonial, with the prime minister holding the political reins, the president possesses certain executive powers such as the right to block the government from drawing down past national reserves which it didn’t accumulate and the power to approve changes to senior political appointments such as the chef justice, the attorney general and the chief executive officer (CEO) of sovereign wealth funds like Temasek Holdings. Thus, if Hsien Yang were to become president, he would have the power to frustrate the government in some respects. He was reached by email at an undisclosed location overseas but declined to comment. However, two sources told Asia Sentinel he is serious about running. He is one of the few Singaporeans who qualify for the requirements of the presidency, which include being chief executive officer (CEO) of a company with at least S$500 million (US$349 million) in shareholders’ equity for at least three years. He was previously the CEO of Singapore Telecom, one of the largest Singapore-listed companies.

“As Singapore is doing so badly under Lee Hsien Loong and is adrift, many Singaporeans yearn for the good times under Lee Kuan Yew. Hsien Yang represents that, so he is very popular on the ground. That is what Lee Hsien Loong is fearful of,” a source who declined to be named told Asia Sentinel.

But another powerful person who qualifies to run, however, is Ho Ching, who was CEO of the sovereign wealth fund Temasek Holdings till October 1, 2021. Rumors that Ho Ching may run have been making the rounds for weeks, but there is no confirmation of this. An Asia Sentinel email query to the prime minister’s office remains unanswered.

If Hsien Loong’s brother were to run against Hsien Loong’s wife, it would be a continuation of the feud that broke into public view in 2017 ostensibly over the disposal of the colonial-era home of Lee Kuan Yew, modern Singapore’s founder and a towering figure throughout Asia if not the world, who ran the city-state with iron discipline. In his will and in public statements, he stipulated that the house be destroyed to prevent it from it becoming a shrine to his memory.

Given the feud among Lee senior’s children, if Hsien Yang becomes president while Hsien Loong is still prime minister, there will likely be acrimonious relations between the president and prime minister, as with two former Singapore presidents, Ong Teng Cheong and Devan Nair.

After Ong became president in 1993, he was thwarted in his attempts to obtain information on the national reserves. After stepping down as president in 1999, Ong gave an interview to the now-defunct Asiaweek magazine on March 10, 2000, where he said he felt “a bit grumpy” that the Singapore government stonewalled his attempts to gain information on the state reserves.

“Lee Hsien Loong was hugely upset by Ong Teng Cheong asking questions on the reserves,” said a source. “It must be Lee Hsien Loong’s nightmare if Hsien Yang were to be in a position to do the same. Hsien Yang has the profile and independent-mindedness that would make him a very persuasive candidate to the population who wants a check and balance on the PAP.”

On Facebook in 2017, Hsien Yang and his sister Wei Ling charged publicly that Hsien Loong and Ho Ching were attempting to shoehorn their son 35-year-old Li Hongyi into a political career with an eye to eventually becoming prime minister. Hongyi has denied, it although he is getting increasing space in Singapore media and many in the political world think it is only a matter of time before he stands for office.

The Lee family and the government have long used the malleable courts to go after their political rivals with a blizzard of lawsuits and contempt charges that have largely cowed both the opposition and the local and international press from any serious criticism. But now there is growing worry that Hsien Loong is misusing the powers of his office to invent legal means to pursue a family feud. For instance, it has reached Hongyi’s cousin Li Shengwu, the eldest son of Hsien Yang and his wife Lee Suet Fern. In 2020, Shengwu, an assistant economics professor at Harvard University in the United States, was found guilty of contempt of court and fined S$15,000 plus being ordered to pay S$8,500 for costs of proceedings and another S$8,070 for disbursements after being found guilty of contempt of court for a private Facebook post that included a link to a New York Times editorial titled “Censored In Singapore,” and a description saying: “Keep in mind, of course, that the Singapore government is very litigious and has a pliant court system.”

Shengwu didn’t turn up for the hearing but paid the fine. On July 11, he posted a public statement on his Facebook page, saying he felt it was unsafe to return to the island because “there’s a substantial risk that my uncle, the Prime Minister, would find an excuse to imprison me were I to return to Singapore. He likes to relitigate old disputes. My uncle has a habit of suing his critics in Singapore courts. Fortunately, the SPEECH act of 2010 makes foreign libel judgments unenforceable in the USA, unless the foreign jurisdiction has at least as much free speech protection as that guaranteed by the 1st Amendment. I now reside in Cambridge, MA, and have a green card. It’s gutting to be unable to return home, and to watch from afar as Singapore slides steadily further into authoritarianism. I’m grateful for the support and sympathy from my friends and my colleagues at Harvard.”

The question of the disposal of Kuan Yew’s home also dented the career of Lee Suet Fern, a senior lawyer who was suspended from practice for 15 months by a judicial panel for misconduct in November 2020. However, the judicial panel found that there was no professional relationship between Lee Kuan Yew and her and that he had never communicated with her on his last will, and that Lee Kuan Yew was “content’ with his last will.

This all ties in with considerable gossip in Singapore that Lee Hsien Loong has no intention of retiring from his position as prime minister. At age 71, he dithered for more than two years in naming a successor before naming Lawrence Wong, currently the finance minister, as its so-called “fourth-generation” leader, first picking Heng Swee Keat, then unceremoniously discarding him and then spending months before it finally settled on Wong. The labored process exposed the party’s inner workings and raised speculation that Hsien Loong’s real goal was to find a place-holder while Hongyi is groomed to follow the interregnum and continue the Lee family dynasty, much as Hsien Loong was, that has been in de facto charge of the island over the 63 years since the British left.

 

by John Berthelsen

* The author is Co-founder and Editor in Chief of Asia Sentinel.

 

 

yyy
READER COMMENTS BELOW

35 Responses to “Lee Dynasty Squabble Shakes Singapore Politics”

  • Jialut lar, this John now sabo Hsien Yang and Sinkies liao. Once the Supremo gets wind that Hsien Yang will stand for the presidency, the rules will change again liao.

    Liz time maybe the qualification will be changed to having helmed an entity worth $500B (which Temasick has) over a period of 10 years (Mdm Ho being the only person on the island that qualifies) from:

    …being chief executive officer (CEO) of a company with at least S$500 million (US$349 million) in shareholders’ equity for at least three years.

    But then seriously hor, even if no change to the rules hor, I don’t think Hsien Yang will be interested in the ‘powerless’ post, clearly Hsien Yang is not groomed to be a ‘puppet’ by the late Mr Lee Kuan Yew. Hsien Yang already so super rich that he can become citizen of ANY country in the world he wants, why bother with the peanut $2m a year puppet post, dio bo? Heard say Hsien Yang family wealth can tell Jack Ma to relax one corner lor.

    But then hor, the Supremo already tickle Hsien Yang and his family so jialut liao, maybe out of spite or revenge hor, he may just stand for fun lor, which will make life very irritable for Wong and the party (if Wong ever becomes the PM) by vetoing this and rejecting that. Imagine everytime he vetoes a bill, the advisors have to go parliament to override the President, what a show!

    Anyway, just my guess guess nia, but if Hsien Yang suddenly announces he is leaving PSP, then maybe its time to grab popcorn and watch the show.

    What thinking you all?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • P Against People:

    On the contrary, the President is a very powerful post. Read the Singapore Constitution, the President can question and block the removal and appointment of all the important heads of dept, SAF, police, and stat board, besides the money stuff. That will be tons of headache. No more freedom to appoint any T,D,H,WFY that they love.

    That’s why pap die die must get their choice in.

    TRE Tech: the ‘powerless’ post

    Tech: You are not wrong, but you forgot that the pres’s panel of advisors can veto the pres and parliament can also do that. If me no mistaken, the pres MUST listen to what the panel says.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Dr Tan Tai Wei:

    Lee Hsien Yang is son of Lee Kuan Yew. You can’t fault LKY of mere pettiness of character, even if you, rightly in some instances, accuse him of pragmatic moves against opponents which were grossly unfair, even cruel. It would be petty of LHY to be merely wanting to avenge his brother on a family dispute. True the familial character, while big brother thinks, with sincerity, that the best for Singapore is only perpetuating father’s pragmatic prowess, nevermind the finer aspects of justice and care, Lee Hsien Yang feels otherwise. With “insider” knowledge as to the extent father’s pragmatism was allowed to go, even contra justice and equality, he now wants to steer Singapore away from those extremes, and towards the centre of true “democratic society, based on justice and equality”. His familial controversy has been only the catalyst. Even he had had to experience the unfairness of the system LKY had forged, where JBJ would have to “crawl on his knees and beg for mercy” for “we control every inch of the place”. And so, with the same strength of character and commitment of a LKY, Lee Hsien Yang now wants to combat father in Lee Hsien Loong, hoping to truly realise father’s vision for Singapore, but minus his unjust pragmatic extremisms.

    Tech: You say until Hsien Yang is so great, like here to save Sinkies like that. Remember that he is still famiLEE hor.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Oh No !!!:

    Our SG is becoming like little brother of NKorea…
    Hope its not too late.
    Vote wisely.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • The daft sinkie poor:

    Oh No !!!:
    Our SG is becoming like little brother of NKorea…
    Hope its not too late.
    Vote wisely.

    It’s little brother of north Korea for long time already. Look what Kim jong Un did to his half brother.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • idontbelieveinccpbs:

    I think PAPPY knows the competition, TCH and LSY.

    Pappy will play dirty again to restrict two key competitors.

    61% ok with PAPPY playing dirty.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • opposition dude:

    Hsien Yang won’t be president lah, it’s as simple as that. For thos with short short memories try and remember what happened in the last presidential election. It was a farce for lack of a better word. 2 malay businessmen vs one female PAP MP who was not even malay, funny or not? And both guys were deemed not to have satisfied the requirements for being president but the lady was deemed to be even though she NEVER was CEO or some other position that enabled her to handle $500 million.

    PAP will come out with some criteria to ensure Hsien Yang doesn’t meet it or just disqualify him outright with some stupid reason like they did in the last presidential election. Even if Hsien Yang somehow did become president he would be facing loads of obstacles and not serve the full term.

    Things are tough when your bro is the #1 man in Singapore lah let’s face it.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • P Against People:

    Yes, Parliament introduced lots of ropes to constrain the President. Must follow Cabinet, must follow advisors. But there are still many places where the Constitution states the President has his discretion to decide.

    Appointment is one area where the President has discretion.

    Appointment of public officers, etc.
    22.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this Constitution, the President, acting in his discretion, may refuse to make an appointment to any of the following offices or to revoke any such appointment if he does not concur with the advice or recommendation of the authority on whose advice or recommendation he is, by virtue of that other provision of this Constitution or any other written law, to act: (a long list of very high level appointments).

    CPIB investigation.
    Concurrence of President for certain investigations
    22G.  Notwithstanding that the Prime Minister has refused to give his consent to the Director of the Corrupt Practices Investigation Bureau to make any inquiries or to carry out any investigations into any information received by the Director touching upon the conduct of any person or any allegation or complaint made against any person, the Director may make such inquiries or carry out investigations into such information, allegation or complaint if the President, acting in his discretion, concurs therewith.

    A hardworking President can give Singaporeans lots of satisfaction.

    P Against People:
    On the contrary, the President is a very powerful post. Read the Singapore Constitution, the President can question and block the removal and appointment of all the important heads of dept, SAF, police, and stat board, besides the money stuff. That will be tons of headache. No more freedom to appoint any T,D,H,WFY that they love.

    That’s why pap die die must get their choice in.

    Tech: You are not wrong, but you forgot that the pres’s panel of advisors can veto the pres and parliament can also do that. If me no mistaken, the pres MUST listen to what the panel says.

    Tech: Ah… interesting read, thank you.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Red●:

    No shake up.
    HC becomes EP and LHL brcomes MM/SM.
    This is 100 pct sealed.
    Only REAL CHANGE is possible if OPPO WINS 45 PCT OF SEATS.
    And,this will be like impossible for as long oppo parties stay fragmented.
    That means NO CHANGE till after many among us are not around anymore.
    So,WP presence in Parliament is plain mutual “wayang” to show some semblance of democracy.
    WP alone means NO CHANGE.
    WASTE OF TIME .

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Fake News ?:

    Fake news?
    propaganda?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • @opposition dude

    For the sake of discussion, let us assume that both Hsien Yang and Mdm Ho are contesting.

    Remember that under the current criteria, the major being Chinese, many are qualified, so there may be more candidates.

    So the way I see it, there can be 3 probabilities how they will ensure that only she gets selected.

    Option #1. Amend the qualifying criteria like minimum equity of $500m to say $500b or something like that. Since Singtel and other businesses are surely not as rich as TH, then automatically only she qualifies. Can also amend the minimum 3 years as CEO to say 10 years, then also only she will qualify.

    Option #2. Like what they did to Tan Cheng Bock, allow all candidates to qualify and make it a multi-corner fight, thus diluting Hsien Yang’s vote. Since TH has a huge support base and it, being the major employer, it is not hard to CONvince the staff to vote for her, so again she will get selected.

    Option #3. Very unlikely, but it is still possible to change the constitution to ensure that future presidents are selected, doing away with the voting. Again this is an extreme move and I don’t think the party dare to do this. Such a decision may adversely affect the upcoming GE prompting more to vote against the party.

    I think option 1 is more secure as even though most Sinkies are very forgetful, there is a risk that Sinkies might suddenly wake up and remember how Tan Cheng Bock lost his votes, so more voters might just wager on Hsien Yang, the no fish prawn also good mentality.

    Coupled with the “injuries and death” from the vaccine mandates, voters might throw all behind Hsien Yang and will see that as no harm to their want to have the party continue to run Sinkieland because the president is perceived as a ceremonial post, with no real power.

    That’s my 2 cents, what do you think?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • idontbelieveinccpbs:

    PAPPY will know if any one qualified to stand will beat any of PAPPY candidate for EP. More and more people are unhappy with PAPPY and the way they are fixing thing to consolidate power.

    Now voters are smarter, they will not vote to split, you look at Dr M, he only got 200++ votes.

    Surely they will make it for none except Mdm H.

    But again, if most voters know the dirty trick, would they go all out to VTO or still vote PAPPY and hope for change?

    The issue is not how dirty is PAPPY, it is how the voters will be convinced to vote against party and policies that are against them.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    Umm,probably they will ERECT ONE BY HOOK OR BY CROOK.
    As for LHY,it is not going to be an easy feat.
    Road-blocks will be put up for sure.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • My gut feel is that as long as Hsien Yang is standing, his chances of winning in a fair and transparent PE are almost certain. Sinkies may be giasu, giasi and gia zhenghu, but voting is secret, so they can feel safe voting for whoever they want.

    But then all this is wishful thinking because dare Hsien Yang announces he is standing for PE, the party will change the qualifying criteria for PE at lightning speed to ensure that Hsien Yang will NEVER smell the inside of Istana.

    Actually, thinking ahead, I am tempted to think that since the cat is now out of the bag, even if it is just a rumor, the criteria is going to be changed anyway to prevent any possibility of Hsien Yang standing for the PE.

    So IMHO, Hsien Yang might as well announce now (stand or not decide later) and see what pattern the PE department will chut.

    What do you think?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • SINGAROAR:

    @Red
    45 is unsafe. We must ensure that the Opposition wins with an overwhelming margin. We should copy the Malaysians in how they voted out UMNO.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • opposition dude:

    TRE Tech:
    @opposition dude

    Option #1. Amend the qualifying criteria like minimum equity of $500m to say $500b or something like that. Since Singtel and other businesses are surely not as rich as TH, then automatically only she qualifies. Can also amend the minimum 3 years as CEO to say 10 years, then also only she will qualify.

    Option #2. Like what they did to Tan Cheng Bock, allow all candidates to qualify and make it a multi-corner fight, thus diluting Hsien Yang’s vote. Since TH has a huge support base and it, being the major employer, it is not hard to CONvince the staff to vote for her, so again she will get selected.

    Option #3. Very unlikely, but it is still possible to change the constitution to ensure that future presidents are selected, doing away with the voting. Again this is an extreme move and I don’t think the party dare to do this. Such a decision may adversely affect the upcoming GE prompting more to vote against the party.

    Tech bro, the way I see it they had a good scare back when the 3 Tans were competing. Do you remember how Tony won by a whisker with less than 1.5% margin from Dr Tan? They would not want that to happen again so it wouldn’t be a surprise if they wayang their way once again to make sure that their selected candidate gets the job. I’m using the last 2 presidential elections for reference as to just what they will do so I expect them to follow along the same path.

    As I mentioned above, they got scared shitless when Tony won by a razor thin margin so had to change the criteria to ensure as few opponents as possible. So when suddenly got 2 malay businessmen as contenders they once again got scared shitless so all they could do was come up with an excuse that the guys did not meet the criteria but somehow their candidate did and viola, we didn’t get the chance to show PAP the middle finger. Wasted loh if you ask me.

    Of course I could be completely wrong on my assumptions and if PAP were somehow going to play fair I still stand by what I said about him facing loads of obstacles because I’m sure PAP remembers the Ong Teng Cheong saga. So Hsien Yang would be president with limited powers and he might go public with how he isn’t allowed to know this and that and PAP responds with some nonsense like they always do leading to a fight and an early election to replace him.

    PAP knows they can’t count on the majority to back their candidate anymore since a little more 35% (I think) voted for Tony back then. The vote dulution thing is a relic liao since more are voting against them, just look at the last election when 40% voted opposition and you can tell how much support they have lost.

    Just wait and see lah, when it’s announced we will see for ourselves just how it unfolds from start to finish.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • @opposition dude

    Your reply makes perfect sense and that reminds me of one more pattern they can chut, if Hsien Yang gets elected.

    They can always amend the constitution again to make sure that the president remains a name-sake post, only can cut ribbons, promote Milo Kosong and take selfies with babies.

    Most important of course is to revoke the president’s absolute power to dissolve parliament.

    Possible rite?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Kay long:

    I see oppersit!

    They “run road”!

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Kay long:

    Mee Siam one meaning rep food!

    Another meaning in hokkien rep an action is I advoid,!

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • python 5:

    >>>PAP knows they can’t count on the majority to back their candidate anymore since a little more 35% (I think) voted for Tony back then. The vote dulution thing is a relic liao since more are voting against them, just look at the last election when 40% voted opposition and you can tell how much support they have lost.<<<

    very good statement and analysis. but the progress of votes going against PAP is veryyyyy slow. from the 4-Tans PE until GE2020..only progress by 5%??

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • opposition dude:

    TRE Tech:
    @opposition dude

    Your reply makes perfect sense and that reminds me of one more pattern they can chut, if Hsien Yang gets elected.

    They can always amend the constitution again to make sure that the president remains a name-sake post, only can cut ribbons, promote Milo Kosong and take selfies with babies.

    Most important of course is to revoke the president’s absolute power to dissolve parliament.

    Possible rite?

    Honestly, it’s very easy one. You just imagine yourself as PAP. You have all the power to make things happen so it’s human nature that you would do anything to ensure your candidate wins and come up with some bullshit reasons to try and fool people.

    Agree, right? So see how things go when the election is announced lah, won’t be surprised if they make it another walkover again.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • I_am_CBAM_cb_AngMoh:

    Kay long:
    I see oppersit!

    They “run road”!

    Kay long:
    Mee Siam one meaning rep food!

    Another meaning in hokkien rep an action is I advoid,!

    Though short and hokkien beng style BUT really a streetwise TAKE!!

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Hm… someone mentioned this and I believe the President has the absolute power to order CPIB to investigate ANYONE, going above and beyond the PMO lor.

    Dunno true or not?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    Not to pour cold water but its hard to see LHY *whacking* his elder bro.
    LHY is too cultured a person.
    He knows what family means.

    We need a non-famiLEE sg to be Prez.
    Maybe somebody like Goh Keng Swee’s charisma.
    Maybe Ngiam Tong Dow kind?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    HC shud not stand for EP election as she is the wife of PM Lee and just left TH where many of her recent investment decisions may hinder objectivity.
    What about Tommy Koh?
    Good or not?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    What about GY?
    Er,maybe Dr Chee?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    The $500 M requirement is SILLY.
    What has Nathan done for sgs as EP?
    $500M /CEO does not mean can surely be good President.
    Anyway,there is the Presidential Council.
    Educated n have wisdom is good enough.
    Look,Ah Heng oso anyhow squadered?
    So,no need such restriction.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • xoxo:

    And,compare Reagan to Trump.
    Reagan was an actor,Trump ,a,Billionaire running big busine$$.
    Reagan was a better President.
    Trump?
    Reagan never ran a $500M company but he ran America!

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • idontbelieveinccpbs:

    We remember a former head was checking into a condo project where special discount was given to particular family, relatives and friends, he was found to be corrupted and jailed.

    The security and cpib units report to Pinky, you asking him to ownself check ownself? There is no partisan in autocracy model, the emperor is the king of all units, he is above the law. Same as Xi in China.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • myfirstscrew:

    If Pinky son enters GE as candidate coming 2024/25, you know the dynasty is being planned and LW is just like GCT another seat warmer.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Soccerbetting2:

    Politics is dirty.Watch this tik tok on Anwar checking corruption including checking on Mahathir -”https://vt.tiktok.com/ZS8JDM2YB/”.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • only stupid people vote pap:

    idontbelieveinccpbs:
    We remember a former head was checking into a condo project where special discount was given to particular family, relatives and friends, he was found to be corrupted and jailed.

    The security and cpib units report to Pinky, you asking him to ownself check ownself? There is no partisan in autocracy model, the emperor is the king of all units, he is above the law. Same as Xi in China.

    Very well said.

    Agree 100%.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • Temusik Patriot:

    Time for the dynasty to be BURIED…loong or yang…j*n* & son…
    Anyone is ONE too Many!!!
    Father to son is bad enough

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • All in the Familee Funds:

    They’re super cunning to the core, one member or another for president. The Familee Closet is filled with state skeletons and cobwebs. Trust no one outside the inner crucible to cover up till kingdom come.

    GD Star Rating
    loading...
  • KT2:

    No wonder Sg is still not ready for a non-Chinese PM if a certain dynasty is impeding ! So, how to move forward ?

    GD Star Rating
    loading...

Leave a Reply

 characters available


Scroll Down For More Interesting Stuff


Member Services
Self-SupportMembers LoginSelf-Support
Sponsored Advertisement
Search On TR Emeritus
Sponsored Advertisement
Announcement
Advertisements
Visitors Statistic
Latest Statistic

UA-67043412-1